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Impacts and Application of Pragmatic Strategies on the Business Negotiation Impacts and Application

发布时间:2021/7/18 8:45:04 浏览次数:0

I.Introduction

With the development of science and technology, advanced communication and convenient transport have brought much more opportunities for traders from different countries to exchange ideas than the past. The opportunity for international trade has increased dramatically between companies. To reach a satisfying agreement, both parties have to negotiate. As an important and frequent activity in international trade, negotiation is the process for two or more parties to discuss and consult in order to reach an agreement based on mutual benefits. Different negotiators apply different strategies in business negotiations. Pragmatic strategy has been the major subject for international business negotiation research. A lot of studies have been done and shown that the application of pragmatic strategy has positive impact on business negotiation. If the language factors were ignored during the process of negotiation, the trade could be easily blocked or even broke down. As the impact of pragmatic strategy on business negotiation is vital, this paper aims to analyze the influence of the application of pragmatic strategies on business negotiation to help in negotiation result control.

Economic globalization has increased the interaction of individuals. The negotiation of international trade has become increasingly frequent. All types of intentional trade of various levels have increasingly shown their important position in all types of cross cultural negotiation. All in all, negotiation is an act of cooperation, and pragmatic strategy is the key point of this cooperation. 

II.Impacts of Pragmatic Strategies on Business Negotiation

    Negotiations are formal discussions between people who have different aims or intentions, especially in business or politics, during which they try to reach an agreement. Pertinence and flexibility are two main characters in pragmatic strategies. Similarly, the application of pragmatic strategy in business negotiation should change according to different factors such as people, affairs, time, location, etc. The way and skills of expression should adjust to changing circumstances when negotiators apply pragmatic strategies during international trade communication. According to different pragmatic strategy on business negotiation, the impacts can be different.

Expecting a satisfying result of the negotiation, both parties endeavor to create and keep the cooperative relationship through some appropriate pragmatic strategies,among which,the application of  pragmatic strategy is of great importance.The perspective of impacts can be variable, as negotiation approach, negotiation styles, negotiation distance and negotiation processes, etc. The following passage will explore the impacts from the main perspective, which are negotiation approach, negotiation styles, negotiation distance and negotiation processes, mentioned above.

2.1Impacts of Pragmatic Strategy on Negotiation Approach

Negotiators from different cultures have different way of communication The more varied the methods of communications,the more complex is the communications context and the more care must be given to understanding this context.There are two main kinds of negotiation approach, which are horizontal and vertical. Horizontal approach is to lineout all the issue involved in one negotiation, then to discuss and consult all the issue at the same time. Vertical approach is to discuss the topic one by one, after listing all the related topics over the negotiation. The choice of pragmatic strategy might also influence the approach to negotiation. If the company decide to apply a deductive pragmatic strategy, keeping distance with its opposite negotiators, it might prefer to vertical approach, for they have prepared all the topics in advance and would like to carry out the negotiation step by step. However, if the company decide to apply a inductive pragmatic strategy, negotiators would prefer to horizontal approach, as they would like to stick to the basic principle and then negotiate all the related issues based on the principle.

2.2Impacts of Pragmatic Strategy on Negotiation Style

Negotiation style refers to the way performed by the negotiators during the consulting process, mainly concerned with their manners, habits, hobbies, etc. As the parties might come from different culture, negotiators from different countries or regions might have different negotiation styles. On one hand, the negotiation style can relaxed and comfortable if humor is largely used in pragmatic strategy. In international trade communication, humor is also a kind of weapon. Humorous language can help negotiators solve problems, relieve tension, and eliminate conflict. The humorous pragmatic strategy can create an easy and comfortable atmosphere in negotiation process, convey emotions, bring joy and peace to the negotiators, which can largely improve the efficiency of the negotiations and also ease the complexity of the negotiations. On the other hand, the negotiating atmosphere can be tense and serious when formal pragmatic strategy is applied. Applying standard languages during negotiation can not only express inquires in a fast and direct way, but also protect the company’s benefit and profit. It is because that the standard languages can create a formal circumstance in business negotiation.

2.3Impacts of Pragmatic Strategy on Negotiation Process

The application of pragmatic strategy will affect the process of negotiation. the choice of pragmatic strategy results in the complexity of communication, for instance, using implicative languages might increase the opportunity for misunderstanding, as both parties should guess the exact meaning from each other. Direct pragmatic strategy sometimes could result in direct negotiation process, as both parties express inquires directly. Negotiation process applying such strategy can be shortened and thus save time and cost. Although some language is straightforward and can protect individual interests and the company’s interest in the process of business negotiation, but expression in such way sometimes can not be easily accept by the opposite party, and thus lead to the pause or even the breakdown of the negotiation. Implicit pragmatic strategy requires negotiators to use the language according to specific environment and situations express ideas, transmit information, and state their position implicitly. 

2.4Impacts of Pragmatic Strategy on Negotiation Distance

Politeness pragmatic strategy is often considered important when it comes to the terms of negotiation distance. To stay a positive effect on negotiation, negotiators should choose the proper pragmatic strategy. Theory about politeness pragmatic strategy mainly delves into two aspects of linguistic choices to serve the politeness functions,that is,negative politeness and positive politeness in business negotiation. In positive politeness pragmatic strategy, negotiator tries to put his opposite group in advantageous position, which means they can shorten the social distance. Using such positive politeness pragmatic strategy can create a favorable atmosphere for negotiations, passing feelings, so that the negotiations get to enjoy the psychological, to improve the efficiency of the negotiations, so that the intricate negotiations carried out smoothly in a pleasant atmosphere. In negative politeness pragmatic strategy, negotiator will put them in a higher position and thus increase the social distance with his opposite group. Speakers can use some indefinites instead of the pronoun ‘I’ and ‘you’ and hedging words and phrases to reduce the power of suggestion or minimize the impingement upon the hearers. The proper use of the negation words is also very crucial,which does not impede the negotiation process.With the application of past tense the author can increase the distance either in time or in space.And with the use of passive voice,speakers call avoid pinning down who is responsible for the action. The negotiators can mitigate assumption upon the opponent’s capability and willingness to do any acts predicted of him by the use of conditional clause and interrogative sentences with modal verbs. 


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